Πέμπτη, 27 Δεκεμβρίου 2012

ΚΑΤΑΤΑΞΗ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΕΙΟΥ ΣΑΝΤΟΡΙΝΗΣ ΑΝΑΜΕΣΑ ΣΕ ΑΛΛΑ ΥΠΕΡ-ΗΦΑΙΣΤΕΙΑ

ΤΟ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΕΙΟ ΤΗΣ ΣΑΝΤΟΡΙΝΗΣ ΤΟ ΚΑΤΑΤΑΣΣΟΥΝ ΣΕ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΟ ΚΑΤΑΛΟΓΟ ΣΟΥΠΕΡ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΕΙΩΝ

Name of VolcanoVEIContinentCountryLocationLast eruptionLast activityStatusDetails
High Island8AsiaChinaHong Kong~140 million years agoNo dataDetails
Island Park Caldera8North-AmericaUSAState of Idaho2.1 million years ago26.12.2012Details
La Garita Caldera8North-AmericaUSAState of Colorado~27.8 million years agoNo dataDetails
Lake Taupo8Australia - New-ZealandNew ZealandNorth Island~26,500 years ago20.12.2012Details
Lake Toba8Indonesian ArchipelagoIndonesiaNorthern Sumatra~74,000 years ago..Details
Whakamaru8Australia - New-ZealandNew ZealandNorth Island~254,000 years ago20.12.2012Details
Yellowstone Caldera8North-AmericaUSAState of Wyoming640,000 years ago26.12.2012Details
Aira Caldera7AsiaJapanIsland of Kyushu~22,000 years ago..Details
Baekdu Mountain7AsiaChinaThe border North Korea and China~969 CENo dataDetails
Campi Flegrei7EuropeItalyNaples~39,280 years ago17.12.2012Details
Kikai Caldera7AsiaJapanOsumi Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture~6,300 years ago..Details
Laacher See7EuropeGermanyRhineland-Palatinate~12,900 years ago16.12.2012Details
Long Valley Caldera7North-AmericaUSAState of California~760,000 years ago25.12.2012Details
Mount Aso7AsiaJapanIsland of Kyushu, Kumamoto Prefecture~80,000 years ago22.12.2012Details
Mount Tambora7Indonesian ArchipelagoIndonesiaSumbawa Island181523.12.2012Details
Reporoa Caldera7Australia - New-ZealandNew ZealandTaupo Volcanic Zone230,000 years ago20.12.2012Details
Santorini Volcano7EuropeGreeceIsland of Thera192727.12.2012Details
Valles Caldera7North-AmericaUSAJemez Mountains, State of New Mexico~1.12 million years ago..Details
VEI : Volcanic Explosivity Index (1-8)NOTICE! This is just an information system!


Classification
The VEI associated with an eruption is dependent on how much volcanic material is thrown out, to what height, and how long the eruption lasts; with the indices running from 0 to 8. The scale is logarithmic from VEI 2 and up; an increase of 1 index indicates an eruption that is 10 times as powerful. As such there is a discontinuity in the definition of the VEI between indices 1 and 2. The lower border of the volume of ejecta jumps by a factor of 100 from 10,000 to 1,000,000 m3 (350,000 to 35,000,000 cu ft) while the factor is 10 between all higher indices.
VEIEjecta volumeClassificationDescriptionPlumeFrequencyTropospheric
injection
Stratospheric
injection[2]
Examples
0< 10,000 m³Hawaiianeffusive< 100 mconstantnegligiblenoneKīlauea, Piton de la Fournaise, Erebus
1> 10,000 m³Hawaiian / Stromboliangentle100–1000 mdailyminornoneStromboli, Nyiragongo (2002)
2> 1,000,000 m³Strombolian / Vulcanianexplosive1–5 kmweeklymoderatenoneGaleras (1993), Mount Sinabung (2010)
3> 10,000,000 m³Vulcanian / Peléansevere3–15 kmfew monthssubstantialpossibleNevado del Ruiz (1985), Soufrière Hills (1995)
4> 0.1 km³Peléan / Pliniancataclysmic10–25 km≥ 1 yrsubstantialdefiniteMount Pelée (1902), Eyjafjallajökull (2010)
5> 1 km³Plinianparoxysmal20–35 km≥ 10 yrssubstantialsignificantMount Vesuvius (79 CE), Mount St. Helens (1980)
6> 10 km³Plinian / Ultra-Pliniancolossal> 30 km≥ 100 yrssubstantialsubstantialKrakatoa (1883), Mount Pinatubo (1991)
7> 100 km³Ultra-Pliniansuper-colossal> 40 km≥ 1,000 yrssubstantialsubstantialMazama (c. 5600 BCE), Thera (c. 1620 BCE), Tambora (1815)
8> 1,000 km³Supervolcanicmega-colossal> 50 km≥ 10,000 yrssubstantialsubstantialYellowstone (640,000 BP), Toba (74,000 BP)

A total of 47 eruptions of VEI 8 magnitude or above, ranging in age from Ordovician to Pleistocene, have been identified, of which 42 occurred in the past 36 million years. The most recent is Lake Taupo's Oruanui eruption, 26,500 years ago, which means that there have not been any Holocene (within the last 10,000 years) eruptions with a VEI of 8.[3] There have been at least 5 identified Holocene eruptions with a VEI of 7. There are also 58 plinian eruptions, and 13 caldera-forming eruptions, of large, but unknown magnitudes. There are likely many other eruptions that are not identified.


http://hisz.rsoe.hu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_Explosivity_Index

 





 

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